By American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers
The 2009 ASHRAE guide - basics covers uncomplicated ideas and information utilized in the HVAC&R undefined. up to date with learn backed via ASHRAE and others, this quantity contains 39 chapters overlaying basic engineering details, simple fabrics, weather info, load and effort calculations, duct and pipe layout, and sustainability, plus reference tables for abbreviations and emblems, in addition to actual houses of fabrics. From the CD-ROM, the climatic layout stipulations tables were extra to this reference, that includes climatic conditions for almost each significant urban on the earth.
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Additional resources for 2009 ASHRAE Handbook - Fundamentals (I-P Edition)
Valves) can be a rattling or sharp hissing sound, which is easily eliminated by raising the system pressure. With severe cavitation, the resulting unsteady flow can produce indirect noise from induced vibration of adjacent parts. See Chapter 47 of the 2007 ASHRAE Handbook— HVAC Applications for more information on sound control. The disturbed laminar flow behind cylinders can be an oscillating motion. 21 for a circular cylinder of diameter d, over a considerable range of Reynolds numbers. This oscillating flow can be a powerful noise source, particularly when f is close to the natural frequency of the cylinder or some nearby structural member so that resonance occurs.
After six diameters, the loss rate at a Reynolds number of 105 is only 14% above that of fully developed flow in the same length, whereas at 107, it is only 10% higher (Robertson 1963). For a sharp entrance, flow separation (see Figure 9) causes a greater disturbance, but fully developed flow is achieved in about half the length required for a rounded entrance. In a sudden expansion, the pressure change settles out in about eight times the diameter change (D2 – D1), whereas the velocity profile may take at least a 50% greater distance to return to fully developed pipe flow (Lipstein 1962).
The sound pressure of noise in water pipe flow increases linearly with head loss; broadband noise increases, but only in the lowerfrequency range. Fitting-produced noise levels also increase with fitting loss (even without cavitation) and significantly exceed noise levels of the pipe flow. The relation between noise and loss is not surprising because both involve excessive flow perturbations. A valve’s pressure-flow characteristics and structural elasticity may be such that for some operating point it oscillates, perhaps in resonance with part of the piping system, to produce excessive noise.
2009 ASHRAE Handbook - Fundamentals (I-P Edition) by American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers