By Harry J. Holzer, and Henry Chen Carolyn J. Hill
Publication via Carolyn J. Hill, Harry J. Holzer, and Henry Chen
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Additional resources for Against the Tide: Household Structure, Opportunities, and Outcomes Among White and Minority Youth
Though the gap narrowed during the 1980s, it stabilized or even widened slightly afterwards (Hauser and Huang 1996). 76 Sample size 5,119 5,810 Note: Sample includes all youth in NLSY97 as of Round 8. SOURCE: Authors’ tabulations from NLSY97. gaps in family income and the persistence of school segregation play some role (Card and Rothstein 2005), though they cannot fully explain the persistence of achievement gaps. Indeed, a racial gap in achievement is observed early (appearing before children start school), and having a young, single mother contributes to lower scores (Fryer and Levitt 2004).
The results for both groups are mostly driven by outcomes among the less educated, as noted by Juhn (1992, 2000). Despite these trends, many of the race and gender gaps observed in the earlier cohort persist in the more recent one. 1 Sample size 2,713 3,186 3,289 4,164 3,333 4,164 Note: Samples include respondents ages 22–24 at the time of interview. Hourly wages are in 2005 dollars, deflated by the CPI-U-RS and measured for the current or most recent job at the time of interview. 1987 NLSY79 interviews occurred between March 1987 and October 1987 and Round 8 NLSY97 interviews occurred between October 2004 and July 2005.
We drop these sample members because we control for educational enrollment and attainment in the regressions later in the chapter, distinguishing between two- and four-year colleges. 4. We identify such individuals using the type of residence variable in the 1986 or 1987 interviews of the NLSY79 and the type of dwelling variable in the Round 7 (2003–2004) or the Round 8 (2004–2005) interview of the NLSY97. 5. ” 6. See Abraham (2003) for a discussion of these issues, and BLS (2008) for further information.
Against the Tide: Household Structure, Opportunities, and Outcomes Among White and Minority Youth by Harry J. Holzer, and Henry Chen Carolyn J. Hill